Wednesday, September 2, 2020

The Salem Witch Trials, the Crucible, and McCarthyism :: Arthur Miller McCarthyism

The Salem Witch Trials, the Crucible, and McCarthyism Verifiable Overview and Brief Analysis In the midst of millenniums of discussion, contention, and struggle concerning racial prejudges and those issues which encompass their usage, there has reliably existed a specific recorded partiality in regards to different cliché thoughts for those things which individuals can't comprehend or clarify coherently. While increasingly contemporary instances of such conditions incorporate ideas, for example, McCarthyism, it is commonly acknowledged that the most great case of all such social catastrophes dependent on dread and obliviousness is that of the provincial period's Salem Witch Trials. While McCarthyism was shown as a broad dread of socialism that drove the United States to seek after superfluous examinations, detainments, and frequently ridiculous acts against the individuals who were regularly just remotely blamed for being a feared socialist, the Salem witch preliminaries prompted well over twelve executions of neighborhood ladies blamed for rehearsing black magic and straightforwardly connecting themselves with fiendish enchantment. In spite of the fact that the two verifiable periods were equal in their inclination and substance, it very well may be contended the a lot before witch preliminaries were the more seriously harsh and silly as they rendered a consistent pattern of silly passings with practically zero equity ever common. The Salem witch preliminaries were held during the year 1692 in Salem, Massachusetts Bay Colony. Starting in May of that year, the procedures prompted the balancing passings of nineteen associated witches and the detainment with numerous others over the five months that would follow. The court scenes of those being gone after for witchery were finished, and articulate crimes of equity. Ladies were really thought about liable as denounced until demonstrated guiltless. Notwithstanding the known hangings, other unfeeling types of discipline, for example, the copying of witches on a stake and the moderate painful human crushings by block are confirm to have existed as Salem's equity for their supposed witches. (Earthy colored., Pages 37-41;43). That which is said to have started the preliminaries and related madness has become an authentic incongruity presently and is the subject of numerous contemporary jokes and dramatic exhibitions. Brought about by the allegations of a couple of little youngsters against ladies in the Salem people group; a unique court was gathered; and preliminaries developed rapidly into socially cliché biases with respect to any ladies seen carrying on of or performing witchery. Inside time the social tumult didn't avoid Salem's progressively renowned ladies as the neighborhood governors spouse was even embroiled in allegations of black magic.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Community service Essays - Civil Society, Free Labor, Volunteerism

A few people accept that unpaid network administration ought to be a mandatory piece of secondary school programs (for instance working for a cause, improving the area or instructing sports to more youthful youngsters). What exactly degree do you concur or oppose this idea? I am an absolutely positive advocator for the possibility that secondary school understudies ought to do some chipping in network administration as an obligatory piece of their normal educational plan. This purpose of my view is upheld by the accompanying reasons. For one, it will be useful for understudies to develop a superior comprehension of the network they live with by useful way and afterward build up their thinking about the general public all in all and the individuals who live in. in this way they can grow up as an average resident with feeling of compassion when more seasoned. Additionally, it has been ordinarily perceived that doing such network benefits as chipping in educating or noble cause work, is strategy for realizing which has been viewed as an enhancement of the present tutoring framework. In contrast to information instruction, understudies will have progressively physical work to do which has been demonstrated to assume a critical job of supporting their administration aptitudes and relational abilities that will assist them with involving in the general public later on after their graduation. On that term, it is no uncertainty a fundamental piece of self-imp rovement. Be that as it may, there are some sensible concerns appeared for this activity. A few guardians stress that it may prompted a contention with other fundamental subject with the constrained time and ability of human investigation. In the mean time, it is a test for the understudy to make sense of the genuine importance behind for doing such unpaid help and afterward become an exercise in futility. it certainly have the likelihood to happen, by one way or another in the event that we attempt to make the thoughtful plan and do some guided guidance ahead, these anticipated issue can be fixed positively. No questions, to cause the unrest to occur in a positive manner need our teachers to invest additional energy. By one way or another it is certainly worth to pursue the more splendid standpoint for the world. All things considered, the time has come to give a support to the pioneer instructive endeavor.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Application of Learning Theories to Teaching

Utilization of Learning Theories to Teaching Hypotheses AND PRINCIPLES FOR PLANNING AND ENABLING LEARNING Undertaking 1 Learning Styles Learning styles sway on each part of our lives: how we assemble data, how we use it and how we connect it together are completely dictated by our learning style. Nicholls Le Versha 2003, p. 57 Learning styles, or psychological styles, allude to how people learn in various manners and are of specific significance to instructors who wishes to make comprehensive and compelling learning circumstance. Learning styles are separated basically, however not solely, into the three gatherings of visual students, aural students and sensation students. While the principal bunch learns best by observing data, for example, on the board or outwardly illustrated, the subsequent gathering learns aurally and necessities to hear what's going on. The third gathering sees best in a hands-on, material way, for example, holding the materials or working on working with them. The significance of providing food for learning styles connects to the significance of seeing how best to cook for intellectual turn of events. Learning style explore has its underlying foundations in the humanistic social constructivism produced by Vygotsky and his follows. Here the pressure is on the communication of socio-s ocial factors in the advancement of the individual and it is anything but difficult to perceive that it is so important to make data accessible to understudies at various levels and in this way consider their individual way to deal with learning. Inspiration Inspiration is an intricate region and can hugy affect student accomplishment and conduct which implies that persuasive encouraging techniques should be painstakingly thought of. Outward inspiration is basically a behaviorist idea in that specific practices are empowered by remunerations, running from applause to cash. The utilization of extraneous inspiration in instructing relates to Pavlov and Skinner’s early work in that the prize is utilized to incite certain practices, for example, acclaim for finishing a test bringing about a positive way to deal with the following content. Characteristic inspiration is a greater amount of an interior main thrust that may originate from factors as different as interest to pleasure. It could be contended that advancement of the previous idea tends towards rivalry while the last is progressively centered around singular accomplishment through progress. Rivalry is regularly observed as a negative and seen as ‘undermining understudy m otivation’ (p. 275) in that it de-persuades the individuals who reliably flop just as giving minimal impetus to the individuals who as of now measure up. In this manner, to energize and comprehensive methodology implies giving wellsprings of inspiration that best suit the understudy however consistently expect to accomplish inherent, progress based accomplishment. Low Literacy At an increasingly even minded level, the effect of low education (and numeracy) upon student’s certainty and learning can be gigantic. Whatever the reason, be it understudies with English as a subsequent language, or those battling with work that is past their passionate age or psychological stage, it is basic for the instructor to survey proficiency levels through an indicative appraisal and plan likewise. It might be that understudies metalinguistic (how language works) mindfulness can be developed utilizing the subject, for example, working through a comprehension of acids and alkali’s as they identify with magnificence treatment. Its utilization just as content to create education has additionally invigorated a huge assortment of research (for example Larson Marsh 2005). This territory merits definitely more consideration than the short notice given here, yet it is additionally a region that may profit by an activity investigate approach whereby the education syste ms of the class are surveyed, watched, dissected and followed up on in a continuous intelligent cycle. Study hall Environment The learning condition and its effect upon understudies have additionally created an impressive collection of writing. While Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs (1970) took a gander at a nonexclusive arrangement of reactions to conditions, an increasingly all encompassing comprehension of the situations that influence a student’s learning have been concentrated by those, for example, Bronfenbrenner (1998) who conceptualized an assortment of natural frameworks, from the smaller scale to the large scale. The microsystem includes the individual’s direct cooperations with others while the macrosystems consider the socio-social qualities and ‘norms’ (Krause et al. 2003, p. 264) . The study hall condition not just needs to give a sheltered, secure and steady climate, it additionally needs to give a comprehensive setting to all people which means taking elements, for example, sex, race, ethnicity, age and stage and so on into thought. Close by these runs the instructors own showing styles †lenient, legitimate or dictator (Whitton et al. 2004, 185) †and how they react to the understudies. Compelling Planning and Intelligence On the off chance that the objective of instructing is to give learning conditions that work to all understudies, at that point unmistakably arranging is a vital component. To take one piece of the showing cycle, arranging, is to take a gander at one part of this immense region. In a constructivist worldview, arranging needs to both create information and play to understudies qualities. Instead of take a gander at this fundamentally, as in arranging utilizing agreeable gatherings, entire class or individual working, this area considers understandings of insight, for example, Gardner’s different insights (Krause et al 2003, p. 201) and Sternberg’s triarchic model of knowledge (in the same place p. 202). Likewise with learning styles, inability to design viably so as to energize a scope of psychological qualities may go about as disincentive. Sternberg separated between logical, innovative and commonsense insights and proposed applying these to the educational plan. They give a helpful methodology to comprehensive educating. Errand 2 Commitment Theory While this has its underlying foundations in separation learning and its utilization (Kearlsey Shneiderman 1999), the premises whereupon it is based show up especially helpful to powerful, comprehensive arranging. One of the essential standards is to get ready for genuine learning through understudy association and arrangement of important undertakings. Besides, this is basically a constructivist approach planned for empowering the individual’s interpretation and disguise of information through guided movement to different zones of proximal turn of events. Thirdly, in the same way as arranged learning, commitment hypothesis is supported by a desire to make learning encounters that characteristically spur through presenting understudies to certifiable critical thinking circumstances. The degrees of commitment additionally identifies with comprehensive getting ready for learning styles and numerous insights. Concerning getting ready for commitment, exercises need to incorporate a scope of showing methodologies, for example, addressing, thinking, investigating, making and judging. This includes making functional, educational program connected circumstances and planning the exercise around them. For instance, one exercise may include a situation, examination of that situation, pretend of the occasions, making choices and evaluating last perception. This strategy takes into consideration a comprehensive methodology intended to permit data to be made accessible to understudies in an assortment of ways and arrangements. Standards of Empowerment This is likewise a to some degree conventional guideline yet it applies to showing effectively. One of the basic objectives is to set understudies up for progress by guaranteeing the assignments are age and stage proper and that they stretch the understudy towards their zones of proximal improvement while guaranteeing fruitful results. Another part of this rule is that understudies assume liability for their learning. Responsibility for improvement has been demonstrated to be a ground-breaking inspiration and inspiration is perceived a key component to learning. Inspiration lives altogether in the individual spurred. It tends to be motivated and energized by others however not given. Leamnson 1999, p. 54 A third component of this guideline alludes to understudy decision. While the learning necessities continue as before, the decision of learning technique, asset use and strategy might be utilized to permit understudies to pick their supported methodology. Intending to enable understudies and along these lines connect with them in their adapting by and by implies providing food for all learning styles and making arrangements for decision. Working in the territory of Beauty treatment takes into account extensive decision of approach and fits functional preparing. This means assets and exercises must be all around organized and arranged before execution yet it likewise implies understudies can locate various methods for accomplishing the necessary learning. An analysis is that understudies won't be required to utilize their less preferred approach and along these lines create territories they feel less certain about. Errand 3 Reflection I find that providing food for all learning styles is an undeniably progressively complex zone that needs more thought. For instance, at one level cooking for learning styles implies giving data such that an individual can take in. Be that as it may, at another level, it likewise requires an increasingly comprehensive diagram that thinks about the understudies socio-social qualities and ‘norms’. In this manner, incorporating this outline inside my arranging cycle requires a few contemplations. For instance, it requires the permitting of space and thought for examining and surveying the student’s foundation information, understandings and worth frameworks. This will reinforce my comprehension of how best to speak with singular understudies and bolster their own feeling of significant worth and security inside the study hall. It is foreseen that this methodology will take into consideration a superior thought of understudy solace and view of security through giving natural arrangements and setting up a safe place. As Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs appeared,

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

War In Yemen Bloody War Between Supporters Of The Government - 275 Words

War In Yemen: Bloody War Between Supporters Of The Government (Essay Sample) Content: War in YemenCourse DetailsInstructorDateWar in YemenFor more than three years now, Yemen has been entangled by a bloody war between supporters of the government (which is internationally recognized) and the Houthi rebels. The government of Yemen and the Houthi rebels have battled since 2014, however much of this fighting was confined to the Houthi stronghold, Saada province northern Yemen CITATION Enn18 \l 1033 (Ennasari, 2018). The war escalated in September 2014 when the Houthi rebels managed to take control of the capital city of Yemen, Saada and proceed to push further downwards towards the countrys second biggest city of Aden. In response to these advances by the rebels a contingent of Arab countries being led by the Saudi government launched a military campaign against the rebels and managed to restore the Saudi government.The big question however is how did the war start? This conflict traces its roots to the failure of a political power transition that was perceived as bring economic and political stability to Yemen. This was as a result of an Arab uprising which forced the then president of Yemen Ali Abdulla Saleh, to give political power to the then deputy president, Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi. The new president struggled to with various issues that concerned the political stability of this improvised nation. Some of the things that he struggled with included confrontation by the al-Qaeda to the south, the continued support of the former president by some military officials and the huge rate of food insecurity CITATION Sau17 \l 1033 (Saul Parisa, 2017).The Houthi rebellion, that had championed Zaidi Shia and fought various wars of rebellion against the former president, capitalized on the weakness of the current president and proceeded to take control of the northern province of Saada and some of its neighboring areas. Disillusioned and discontented with the then transition of power, most Yemenis including Sunni Muslims pledged thei r support for the Houthi movement. With this nature of support, the Houthi movement gained a lot of strength which led then to take over Sanna, the capital city of Yemen. The rebellion movement together with the security forces allied to President Saleh then attempted to seize the entire country by targeting other cities. This forced the current president to escape the country in March 2015.International countries had a huge influence on how the war in Yemen developed. For instant, the Iran government was accused of backing the rebellion. Concerned by the rise and growth of a rebellion group that was believed to get support from the military of the Shia power Iran, Eight Arabian countries being led by Saudi Arabia begun an airstrike campaign against the rebel with the objective of restoring the President Hadis government CITATION Enn18 \l 1033 (Ennasari, 2018). Over the years there had been back and forth military campaign between Houthi rebellion and Mr. Hadi forces that is being backed by the Sunni Arabian countries.The Saudi government, has been particularly on the fore front in leading the air strike campaign against the rebels. To the Saudi Arabians, they actions is believed to stop the advances of the rebel group which they believe is being supported by some terrorist organisation and Iran. The Saudi government aim is to restore President Hadis authority who they believe is capable of bring back political stability to the region. Primarily, the Saudis are mostly concerned with the rise of Shia power in the region which threatens to topple the rule of the Sunnis. Basically the war in Yemen Has now escalated to a battle between the Sunni Muslims and the Shia Muslims CITATION Kar18 \l 1033 (Karam, 2018).Saudi Arabia has for a long time shared a long and porous border with the Yemen and the main fear that the Saudi government has is that the Iranian expansionism through its support for the Syrian government may slip into the country and destabilize the p olitical stability that currently exist in the region. Information from the Arab Gulf course has often state that Iran has now gained control of four Arabic capitals including: Damascus, Baghdad, Sanaa and Beirut. With complete control of Yemen through their support for the rebel movement, the Iran government will have significant influence in the region which will shift the balance of power in the Arab word. This will increase the dominance of the Shias in the region which the Saudi-led countries is viewing as a threat to the economic and political stability of the region CITATION Sau17 \l 1033 (Saul Parisa, 2017). This is the main reason why Saudi Arabia have taken a strong stance towards the support of the Yemen government to protect both the civilians and the economic prosperity of the region. The Saudi led coalition is comprised of countries such as UAE, Kuwait, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Senegal.The Houthi rebels, on the other hand, have also received there fair support fro m the Iran government. Iran government is providing military support to the rebellion by sending more advance and complicated military weapons and advisers to the rebels. Through these actions, the Iran government believes that it is stepping up support for their Shia ally in the civil war which threatens to shift the balance of power in the Middle East region. Information from credible source states that over the last few years, the Iran government has taken a critical role in the war in Yemen by increasing their supplies of arms and other military support to the rebel group. This is the same strategy the Iran government has used to support its ally in the Syrian war CITATION The18 \l 1033 (The Atlantic daily, 2018). The Iranian military officials, through a meeting in Tehran resolved to takes several steps to empower the Houthis rebellion. In this meeting, the generals came to an agreement to step up the amount of help through provision of arms, training and financial support for the Houthi rebels.Although the Iranian government is presently denying arming the Houthi rebels, the US military is claiming to have intercepted the shipment of arms from Iran to Yemen in March and they claim that this is the third time that they are intercepting such Shipment.Information from a senior US general has stated that the involvement of the Iran government in the Houghs military campaign has reached a level where they are helping the rebels to target ships that belong to the Saudi-led coalition fighting in Yemen. This active support for the rebellion group has caused a lot of damage to the region. The Houthi rebellion is known to be very vicious especially to the civilians. The rebellion is well known to destabilize the humanitarian condition in the region and harassing innocent civilians especially those who do not conform to their ideology. With the support of the Iran government, the military position of the rebellion has greatly improved which means that they can now advance their agenda more viciously. This has further deteriorated the humanitarian conditions in the region and increased the amount of terrorist activity in the region.Iran is a Shia dominated country while Saudi is a Sunni dominated country. As mentioned earlier, this war has escalated to the war between various religious factions. Looking at these situation critically, we can see that the Shia are fighting the Sunni and Vice-versa with the main objective of gaining control of the Middle East and the entire Arab world. For instant, the Houthi rebellion which is majorly comprised of the Shia tribe are fighting Sunni led government. The Iran government on the other side, which is led by the Shia are providing arms and financial help to the rebellion as a means of empowering the Shia influence in the region. This move has been largely criticized by the Saudi-led coalition who in turn have announced and provided support to the Yemen government as an initiative that is largely b elieved to restore political stability in the region as well as advance Sunni influence.The coalition troops being led by Saudi Arabia landed its military campaign in the month of august 2015 and drove the Houthis rebellion and their ally from most of the Southern part country which they had taken control of CITATION Joh18 \l 1033 (Johnston, 2018). This has significantly reduced the advances of the rebellion group and thwarted their operations even after they had taken control of the countrys capital. After Houthi seized the capital city Sanna, the Yemen government have established its base in Aden.The massive campaign by the Houthi rebellion has led to a diminishing standards of life in the region. The have been a lot of civilian casualties as a result of the war as well as massive displacement. For instant the provision of aid to the civilian is very difficult especially with the advances of the Houthi rebellion group. The aid Organisations, including some international organis ation are finding it very difficult to provide aid in the region such as food, medical services and other essentials CITATION Mic18 \l 1033 (Michael, 2018). The Houthi seize of part of the Taiz city has prevented medical and food supply from entering this part of the city. With the prevention of medical and food supply by the rebels, most of the Yemen civilians have been subjected to hanger and poor medical conditions for a very long time CITATION Kar18 \l 1033 (Karam, 2018). Aids agency have now warned that most parts of Yemen, especially those that are under the control of the Houthi rebel, will start to experience widespread starvation and death from famine. As the war continues more and more people are beginning to rely on aid which is not reaching them.Presently, Yemen is considered to be the worlds largest humanitarian emergency. About 18 million people have been subjected...

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Planet Mercury as a School Science Fair Project

Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, and this makes it unique in our solar system. There are many interesting facts about this planet, and it is the perfect topic for a school science fair project. Middle and high school students can take a science fair project about Mercury in a number of directions. The display can be interactive and include a model of the planet, as well as amazing space photographs. Why Is Mercury Special? A science fair is meant to be a students exploration of a single science topic, and Mercury is often overlooked when it comes to the planets. In fact, it is a planet that we know very little about. In 2008, NASAs Messenger spacecraft sent back some of the first images of the planet since the 1970s, and it just crashed on the planet in 2015. The pictures and data scientists collected from this mission makes now a better time than ever to study Mercury at a science fair. Mercury and the Sun A day on Mercury lasts longer than the time it takes the planet to revolve once around the Sun. If you were standing near Mercurys equator: the Sun would appear to rise, then briefly set again, before resuming its path across the sky. During this time, the size of the Sun in the sky would seem to grow and shrink as well. The same pattern would repeat as the sun set — it would dip below the horizon, briefly rise again, then return below the horizon. Mercury Science Fair Project Ideas What is Mercurys place in the solar system? Build a scale model of our solar system to show where Mercury is and how big it is in comparison to other planets.What are the features of Mercury? Could the planet sustain some kind of life? Why or why not?What is Mercury made of? Explain the core and the atmosphere of the planet and relate those elements to things we find on Earth.How does Mercury orbit the sun? Explain the forces at work when the planet orbits the sun. What keeps it in place? Is it moving further away?What would a day look like if you were standing on Mercury? Design an interactive display or video that shows people how the light would change.What did NASAs Messenger mission to Mercury find? In 2011, the Messenger spacecraft reached Mercury and gave us a new look at the planet. Explore the findings or the instruments used to send them back to Earth.Why does Mercury look like our moon? Examine the craters of Mercury, including the one named for John Lennon and the one mad e when Messenger crashed there in 2015.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Study On Infectious Disease - 1222 Words

Trhia Vu N01390867 Palm Beach IAI Script- Secondary Peritonitis A) Pharmacist: Student pharmacist, I would like to go over John Smith’s case with you today so we can discuss the appropriate therapy for him. A) Pharmacy Student: Sounds great! I am currently learning about infectious disease. This will help test my knowledge and really help me become a great clinician. A) Pharmacist: Let’s get to it! John Smith is a 19-year-old male who arrived at the emergency room complaining of nausea and vomiting beginning soon after experiencing pain on the right side of his lower abdomen and lack of appetite for the past 14 hours. He has a temperature of 101.2 F, also tachypnea with no known drug allergies. What labs and test do you think we should†¦show more content†¦Pharmacy student, based on your knowledge, can you interpret these results for me? B) Pharmacy student: Sure, his elevated white blood cell count is an indication of a bacterial infection. We can also look at the bands to see if it is elevated as well, it should be less than 5%. The CT scan helped clarify the diagnosis appendicitis because his appendix is larger than 6 mm in diameter. There is inflammation in the surrounding peritoneal fat possibly due to impacted mass of feces causing the obstruction and the free fluid indicates spillage of contents into the peritoneal cavity. B) Pharmacist: Very well done student pharmacist. We will need to ensure this patient has adequate IV fluids to prevent dehydration. What other labs should we order for JS? B) Pharmacy Student: We would need to obtain a sample of the peritoneal fluid using paracentesis, and then perform a gram stain and blood culture to see if there is bacterial growth. B) Pharmacist: We will check back on those labs as soon as they are received. JS does appear to have secondary peritonitis, most commonly appendicitis. How can we classify this? C) Pharmacy student: The most appropriate classification for JS’s appendicitis is high-risk community acquired infection. C) Pharmacist: That is correct! What are the most common pathogens for this type of infection, student pharmacist? C) Pharmacy student: We must cover our gut bacteria and use agents with broader coverage of gram-negative pathogen E.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Modified Atmosphere Packaging free essay sample

This type of packaging helps inhibit spoilage. The leading cause of spoilage of food is the growth of microbes such as bacteria, yeast, mould, that are present to our surroundings, in or on our bodies as well. Such microbes’ turn food products bad and makes the food change its appearance over time spent when exposed to air. There are additional means to control these bacteria, including regulating the moisture levels, the pH levels, along with monitoring storage time and temperature suitable for the designated food. Scope of Study: The aim of this investigation is to find out how Modified Atmosphere Packaging affects the hospitality industry. Mainly focusing about grocers, price change, consumers, and other types of packaging that are similar to MAP. The focus questions that are going to be answered are: 1. What are Modified Atmosphere and Controlled Packaging? 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this type of packaging? 3. The impact it made on both hospitality industry and consumers. Methodology: In this report I will be using primary and secondary resources. I will be conducting surveys as a primary resource and using the internet and videos as my secondary resource. For my surveys, I used a site called www. urveymonkey. com. I have gathered about 23 surveys in total. On the internet I will be trying to get information related to my sub-questions listed above. Using the opinion of others gives another dimension into this report. Giving me factual information that I have conducted and gathered of twenty-three people surveyed. This is to further understand the real â€Å"impact† it’s making in the Hospitality Industry from an â€Å"experienced† individual. What are Modified Atmosphere and Controlled Atmosphere Packaging? MAP is a new type of food packaging that has been recently invented to slow down spoilage. It is the attachment of food in a package where the atmosphere inside the package is modified or changed. The pack is flushed with a gas or a combination of gases, filling the pack in different concentrations at its finest levels and quantities for the product being transported is injected into the container after being sealed. The common gases used for MAP are oxygen (O? ), nitrogen (N), carbon dioxide (CO? ). This is commonly increasing and/or decreasing the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in a food package. Nitrogen is frequently used in this type of packaging. This is to reduce the concentration of other gases injected into a package. (apl, 2012) Red meat needs a high level concentration of oxygen to maintain and preserve the red colour of it. Whereas bread needs low oxygen output to avoid mould and vegetables usually needs two or three gases injected to the pack. MAP is commonly used in food packages and drugs (MAP, 2012). There is another type of packaging similar to MAP. This is called Control Atmosphere Packaging also known as â€Å"CAP†, this is when an attempt is made to control the arrangement of the pack and the food stored in it with two or more types of gases. Not only increasing shell life, it also keeps insects and pests away since most insects and pest cannot live without oxygen. CAP is usually packed in gas resistant packages. The common gases used in the packaging are carbon dioxide (CO? ), oxygen (O? ), nitrogen (N) as well as the temperature and humidity is also regulated. â€Å"There are also traces of carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, ozone, argon, and ethanol vapour and sulphur dioxide† (Food Processing, 2012), (MAP, 2012). Figure 1: Examples of products that benefit from Controlled and Modified Atmosphere Packaging. http://www. postharvest. com. au/MAP_article. PDF, 2012) (From Transicold (1995). Controlled Atmosphere Handbook and Optimal Fresh (2000). CSIRO Publishing. ) Figure 1: Examples of products that benefit from Controlled and Modified Atmosphere Packaging. (http://www. postharvest. com. au/MAP_article. PDF, 2012) (From Transicold (1995). Controlled Atmosphere Handbook and Optimal Fresh (2000). CSIRO Publishing. ) T he table shows how much oxygen and carbon dioxide is injected into a package in its corresponding fruit shown. Comparing the storage lives of the fruits in normal air and CA/MAP shows great results. Whereas Apple Gala increased a quarter of its normal shell life, while Pear, Avocado, Broccoli, Bean are doubled its shell life, and the others increased a reasonable amount of days. The temperature means that the temperature regulated. The temperature is regulated while injecting the package and what temperature should the fruits is stored into. Advantages of MAP and CAP: * Shelf life extension: Depending on the product, the time an item can remain displayed at a supermarket can increase for about 40-450%. This means the wastes consumed is minimised where ordering and restocking are more flexible. Thus decreasing the economical loses of supermarkets/grocers. * Quality: The quality remains depending on both retailers and consumers. These packs are sealed and free from product drip and odour. It deteriorates slower as it makes its journey from place to place, whether from the domestic kitchen, fridge or freezer. * Presentation: The package are manufactured, thus the package are encased properly. Giving a clear view of the product, all round visibility and displayed more attractively. The visual display becomes another key to MAP’s sales effectiveness. * Reducing artificial preservatives needs: Today, where having the intent of becoming ‘greener’ as our viewpoint. â€Å"Protecting the environment, there are advantages to getting rid of as many additives as possible. The goal is food, which is NATURALLY fresh and in some cases using MAP means that no artificial preservatives are required at all to achieve a reasonable shelf life† (MPIAust, 2012). Disadvantages of MAP and CAP: * Costs: The costs certainly grow larger within in the range of 50c $5 per package. This is because of the gases, gas packaging machinery and packaging materials used. * Net weight Increases: The volume increases making the item bulkier than any other forms of pack. Therefore they are costlier to carry and store. * Temperature control: The temperature of the pack must be controlled. Certain food products need to be stored in its corresponding temperature. If the temperature is not regulated it could show bad results such as, a change of colour or an off smell. This is because if not controlled and left out for too long the expiry date will not be applicable to use. The impact made: This type of packaging certainly affected both the hospitality industry and our society. This is due to the concept of it is rapidly growing in the food packaging market. â€Å"Also because a longer shelf life means less replacement demand from grocers, manufacturers can also expand their product lines. They can conduct production savings toward developing new products, which can lead to bigger profits in the long run† (peakpackaging, 2012). Even though MAP and CAP had given such great impact in the industry, consumers are affected too. According to the surveys allocated, I have found out that consumers these days have very little knowledge and understanding about food packaging. They are just aware that the food is â€Å"packaged† without knowing that it could be a MAP or CAP package. About 30% of the surveyed people did not know how that the expiry date does not apply when the package is opened. â€Å"Consumers using color as single indicator of meat freshness without paying attention to expiration dates might be at risk† (cmc-cvc, 2012). Thus affecting those who are not aware of this often feel discouraged of buying the same product again if certain â€Å"incidents† happen. The consumer’s behavior during a purchase and non-purchase decision usually comes from quality, convenience and safety of the food. These three must be looked at for a consumer to be sure that it is the best and safe. When quality leads to where the consumer ask himself/herself to â€Å"is it premium? † and the costs of the food. After that it is then judged by the flavour, colour and the texture of the food product. Where Convenience easy to-, cooking or functional Shelf life and safety health and trust microbial safety of the food. Longer shelf life means greater transport opportunities. The efficiency of this slows down the respiration and delaying the production using MAP. â€Å"Lettuce, for example, can be transported across the Pacific using modified atmosphere with excellent results† (apl, 2012). The adjusted gas/air includes of a package could change during the trip because of the respiratory action of the supplies and pressure changes in the package while travelling, thus reducing its efficiency at delaying the deterioration of fresh produce food products (airproducts, 2012). CAP is better at ‘shipping’ rather than MAP. CAP is more technologically advanced process when it comes to inhibiting spoilage of food products. This specifically controls the atmosphere arrangements within the container throughout the ship’s journey. CAP can increase the shelf life of a food product by two to three times longer than any other methods. While other types of packaging methods need a person to take control of the package, CAP uses a computer system to monitor, manage and control the atmosphere in the package and make adjustments during the trip. The system also records changes in the atmospheric arrangements during a ship’s journey and provide a printout page for quality control purposes (airproducts, 2012), (apl, 2012). Using these types of packaging can reach remote places and can still be sold during its running shelf life. Such as, domestic and overseas shipping, could still reach good results seemingly that some food products can double its shelf life by using these methods. Thus the manufacturers can provide fruits, vegetables and food stuffs ultimately around the world. MAP is an individual transport where it is transported as an individual product, whereas CAP is an industrial transport where it is transported in massive amounts mainly for bigger marketplaces. Conclusion: MAP and CAP basically changed the whole concept fresh food packaging, allowing shops, stores, and sellers to market fresh foods that are ready, prepared and packed in units, rather than prepared at the back store. This method has also extended shelf-life, allowing products to endure both the delivery time to its designated place, as well as the display time in the store.